Saturday, December 7, 2019
Architecture Thesis Essay Aesthetics and architecture Urban design theory Culture and architecture Landscape architecture Architectural theory Vernacular architecture After choosing one particular subject of your architectural thesis, you will have to develop an architecture thesis topic. You will find a list of architecture thesis topic below. Architecture Thesis Topics These architecture thesis topics will enlighten and broaden your vision of architecture thesis topics. This list of architecture thesis topics contains: The Interaction of Reinforced Concrete Frames and Architectural Form Subjected to Earthquake Effects Design of a planar mechanism for external sun shading systems Analysis of Planar Bar Mechanisms in Architecture Instrumentalists of Natural Science for the Reconstruction of Architectural Knowledge Aesthetics and architecture Scheduling Problems in Architectural Design Process An Evaluation of Junction Details with Transparent Sheets in Furniture Design Determination of Place Concept in the Reproduction Process of Built Environment An Analytical Study of the Design Potentials in Kinetic Architecture Using Machine Learning Techniques for Early Cost Prediction of Structural Systems of Buildings Day lighting Evaluation in Office Buildings Construction of Time Conception in Architectural Realm: Siegfried Gideon and Space, Time and Architecture Architecture Thesis Outline This architecture thesis outline reveals that how you should structure your architectural thesis. Architecture thesis topics introduction Thesis statement Methodology chapter Research procedure explanation . Results evaluation Architecture thesis conclusion Architecture thesis bibliography Architecture Thesis Statement Sample It is a sample thesis statement to help you so that you can have a clear idea of how to write an architecture thesis statement. In various cities throughout the country there is an ever mounting amount of urban spread out in shape of commercial and retail growth. Huge retail chains are in search of the best openings to sell their commodities and services. As this countrys population grows, there is also a rise in housing need. Our suburban communities are rapidly turning into large towns and ultimately cities. There is a raise in required infrastructure, tax base, and growth. Regrettably, it seems that much of this development is leaving behind some of the original town centers and main streets. Small shopping centers are being replaced with large box stores and vast seas of pavement. Buildings that housed banks, gas stations, and the local barber shop are being left behind, surplus shells that are no longer pleasing to their paying guests. Recent years have shown great demand and interest in the recycling, conservation, and expansion of long unoccupied urban areas of internal city. Businesses, restaurants, and artists flock to these older buildings and areas to live, work, and play. This creates a space of vacated buildings and architecture between the urban center and the ever increasing suburban development. They are being left behind. Architecture Thesis Proposal Format You need to take care of every minor point of architecture thesis since it is a crucial step that will lead you to further success.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Report Writing: Style and Structure Essay Report Writing: Style and Structure Summary Writing a report can seem daunting at first, but with a solid understanding of the fundamental structure and style used in constructing clear and concise reports, it can be achieved. The standard report format is as follows: Title, Summary, Introduction, Body, Conclusions, Recommendations, Appendix, References and Table of Contents. We will first look at how to prepare a report before the writing begins. Learning objectives At the end of the session, students will be able to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Write with a specific purpose and audience in mind Ã¢â¬ ¢ Structure sentences, paragraphs and reports Write clearly and concisely Purpose and audience Before writing a report you should first identify some key factors, which will help you plan your approach and write with clarity. The first question you should ask yourself is, Ã¢â¬Å"what is the purpose of the report? Ã¢â¬ Purpose Ã¢â¬Å"What is it about, and what is it for? Ã¢â¬ It is beneficial to esta blish the purpose of your report before you start writing, so that you can think clearly on the subject, and produce a report styled to fit the needs of your purpose. Recognize what your report is for, (informing, instructing, guiding) and focus your writing on explaining the details. If for example, you want to write an instructional report for a team of colleagues, you know that you must focus your writing on providing clear concise instructions, which will allow your reader to comprehend the processes that you are describing. Audience Ã¢â¬Å"Who are you writing for? Ã¢â¬ The second question you should ask yourself is, Ã¢â¬Å"who is going to read this report and why? Ã¢â¬ Knowing your audience will help you determine how long your report should be, how it should be presented, and what level of terminology you should use to best attract and maintain the interest of your reader. We will write a custom essay sample on Report Writing: Style and Structure specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Report Writing: Style and Structure specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Report Writing: Style and Structure specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer If for example, you are writing a report to inform policy makers, you would want to focus on presenting your evidence clearly and concisely. We will now try an exercise on identifying audience and purpose: Exercise one Malaria Prevention You are a Health worker at the Ministry Of Health and have been asked to write a report on Malaria. You have access to the figures on Malaria incidents in the Country over the last five years, as well as access to the latest info on drugs and other barriers to prevent Malaria. 1. Describe the purpose of your report, and identify your audience. The sentence Now that we know how to identify our audience and define a purpose, we will look at how to write clearly and succinctly. Understanding how to structure a sentence is essential to conveying meaning clearly. Following are a few rules of thumb to help avoid ambiguous sentences: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep it short and to the point. Many people have trouble with run-on sentences, creating ambiguity by attaching many ideas together with large combinations of commas, semicolons and dashes. Complete one thought and close out your sentence with end punctuation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Words for words sake. Avoid extraneous words, and parentheses that do not add to your point. Ã¢â¬ ¢ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t leave it hanging. Sentence fragments can be just as confusing as run-on sentences. Make sure that you have completed your sentence and that it makes sense, before closing it out. For a comprehensive explanation of the inner workings of sentences and grammar, you can visit the links below. Sentence help: http://www2. actden. com/writ_den/tips/sentence/index. htm Grammar help: http://www. speakspeak. com/html/d10_english_grammar. htm We will now look over some common errors that can convolute sentences and obscure meaning. Sentence Fragment Ã¢â¬Å"Mark has finished his work on time. Since he started planning ahead. Ã¢â¬ The second sentence is a fragment here, because it does not contain enough information to complete a thought. Most sentence fragments are phrases that belong to the previous thought. To correct the problem in this instance, we simply remove the period. Correct Ã¢â¬Å"Mark has finished his work on time since he started planning ahead. Ã¢â¬ Run-on sentence Ã¢â¬Å"Jane loves Tom he is a good friend. Ã¢â¬ A run-on sentence occurs when you have two complete sentences that are not separated by correct punctuation. In this case we can correct it with a comma and a linking word, or by using a period. Correct Ã¢â¬Å"Jane loves Tom, because he is a good friend. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jane loves Tom. He is a good friend. Ã¢â¬ Exercise 2 Correct the following sentence fragments and run-on sentences. We will play Cricket tomorrow. If it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t rain. In our survey we contacted 212 members of government 110 members of government responded. In order to obtain funding. You have to write clear concise reports. Michael loves to write reports he is talented at it and his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Shelly. Structuring Sentences, Paragraphs and Reports Tell them what youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to tell them, tell them, and then tell them what you told them. Ã¢â¬ The diagram below is an excellent example on how to write clearly and logically. We will now look at each part of this Ã¢â¬Å"mapÃ¢â¬ and then see how the pieces come together. [pic] Introduction Introductory paragraph The introduction should explain the general ideas to come, as well as your thesis statement, which tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the report. The rest of the report should gather evidence and organize a case around your thesis statement. Topic sentences A topic sentence is like a mini introduction to the body of your paragraph. Your topic sentence should explain what the body of the paragraph will cover, (just like your introduction explains what to expect in the report). It is a good idea to Ã¢â¬Å"mapÃ¢â¬ out your report, by first writing topic sentences for each of the different paragraphs or sections of your report. 2. Body Support sentences Support sentences are the body of paragraphs. This is the section of your report that serves to provide evidence and examples that reinforce your thesis statement. Support sentences are also used to clearly explain and underpin main ideas. . Conclusion Concluding sentences The concluding sentence is used to reiterate the main points developed by the support sentences, and signal the end of a paragraph. They are also useful for adding emphasis to certain key points, through repetition. We will now look at how to create the different parts of a report outside of the general writing, which a re: Title, Summary, Recommendations, Appendix, References, and Table of Contents. Title The title is your first contact with the reader, and should inform them succinctly about what they are about to read. Summary The purpose of a summary is to provide an overview of the report. It is not necessary to give detailed information in the summary, but rather to provide an indication of the type of information that the report contains. Average summaries are between 100-150 words, and are generally written after the report has been completed, so that you know exactly what you are summarizing. Recommendations Recommendations are not an essential part of a report; however, if you are including one, it should follow from your conclusion. A brief statement clearly declaring your recommendations will suffice. Appendix An appendix contains materials that are peripheral, but relevant to your report. For example you may wish to include a glossary of terms in your appendix if you are writing a technical report for those who are not experts on the subject. You may also include copies of research tools such as questionnaires and manuals, as well as tables and diagrams that you feel would disrupt the flow of your report by breaking it up. If your appendix does contain tables, diagrams etc. , make sure to label them properly, so that the can easily be found when referenced. References If you have consulted or quoted any media sources, (print or otherwise) to help you compile your report, they must be acknowledged here, as well as in the text. Citing your resources not only avoids running into plagiarism issues, but strengthens your work by backing up your report with evidence from the work of others. If you are quoting directly from someone else, the quote must be followed by the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s surname and date of publication in round brackets, e. g. Calvino (1983). A standard bibliography is an alphabetized list ordered by AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s surnames. For a book you must include: the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s surname and full name, or initials; the full title of the book; the edition (if other than the first); the place of publication; the publisher, and the date of publication, e. g. Calvino, Italo. Palomar. Torino: S. P. A. , 1983. For a complete guide to correct citation, visit: http://www. liu. edu/cwis/CWP/library/workshop/citmla. htm Table of Contents A table of contents is a page containing numbers that correspond to different parts of your report, allowing readers to jump between sections quickly. Number and title the different portions of your report, (such as Ã¢â¬Å"1. 2 Medical advancements in treating MalariaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"1. 3 Government funding for treating MalariaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"2. 1 ReferencesÃ¢â¬ etc. ) and then create a corresponding list of contents that lists the page number as well as the reference number, which should be sequential, starting from the summary. A good starting point for mapping out your table of contents is to do it corresponding to your topic sentences. Below is an example of a Ã¢â¬Å"mappedÃ¢â¬ checklist that puts all of the steps we have learned together followed by a table of contents. It is a good guidance tool to use when preparing to write a report. The Ã¢â¬Å"mappedÃ¢â¬ checklist is modeled on the Malaria prevention exercise we completed earlier. Ã¢â¬Å"MappedÃ¢â¬ Checklist for Malaria Prevention 1. Who is it for? Health workers in district offices. 2. What is it about? Malaria prevention success stories over the last five years. 3. Title LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Win the Battle Against Malaria 4. Summary This report attempts to examine the benefits and drawbacks between different methods of combating malaria in Southern Africa, including rate of success, time, cost, and other socio-economic factors. 5. Introduction Exploring the methods for evaluating available options for combating malaria, and the relative successes of different options over the past five years. 6. Topic sentences 1. Insecticide treated nets have been proven to protect people from malaria, by both preventing physical contact, and killing the mosquito. 2. Community based work projects to reduce mosquito breeding grounds have been successful. 3. Indoor residual spraying remains one of the most widely used methods of vector control. 4. All of the discussed methods for the prevention of malaria work to some degree, but is it more beneficial to take a proactive or reactive stance? . What is the most successful and cost effective way to combat malaria, and how can we implement these measures? 6. With community work and adequate resources, malaria could be greatly reduced over the next decade. 7. Conclusion Having examined the different malaria prevention methods, and weighing their pros and cons, there are many possible solutions. 8. Recommendations 9. Appendix 10. References Table of Contents for Malaria Prevention ContentsPage no SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2 ContentsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 1. IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 2. Prevention methodsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5 2. 1 Insecticide treated netsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5 2. 2 Community based work projectsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 6 2. 3 Indoor residual sprayingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 7 3. Success and CostÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦8 3. 1 Proactive and reactive approachesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 8 3. 2 Striking a medium between cost and successÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 3. 3 Future successÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 4. ConclusionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 9 5. RecommendaionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦10 6. AppendixÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 0 7. ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 11 Exercise 3 Bringing it all together Now that you have an understanding of the content and structure of a report, it is time to put that knowledge to use. 1. Using one of the reports that we read last session, map out the topic sentences, then construct a table of contents. Tips for writing a report Ã¢â¬ ¢ Write in plain English Ã¢â¬ ¢ Select an appropriate title Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use your spell checker Ã¢â¬ ¢ Start writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use your Report Map Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sleep on it Ã¢â¬ ¢ You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to start at the beginning Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be engaging Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use language the will be comprehensible by your intended audience
Monday, November 25, 2019
Differences between Aristotle and Machiavelli essays Differences between Aristotle and Machiavelli Of the philosophers that we have studied: Plato, Aristotle and Machiavelli, it is evident that they all have differing opinions about certain concepts. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the different views of Aristotle and Machiavelli concerning the issues of politics and human nature. For Aristotle, a political community is one in which there are arguments and dialogues over what is advantageous and harmful, and just and unjust. The mail goal for the community is happiness for each other. Aristotle is not an idealist like Plato was. He believes that nature disposes us to set rules living in a community. For him, arguments or conflicts are what makes things run; but he sees in this the goal of construction. In short, Aristotle believes politics are worthy of pursuing and carrying out for the common good, to prevent chaos, and for happiness, virtue and equality. Contrastingly, for Machiavelli in politics the only rules that should be followed are those that help a person gain security and power. The idea of the common good is irrelevant to Machiavelli. He believes that people only go into politics for power and who ever the ruler may be; he should be forceful and manipulative. In terms of human nature, Machiavelli believes that we all came into this world naked, unprotected, insecure, and alone. He says nature provides each of us with an inclination towards evil but creates a condition of scarcity that makes each of us fundamentally alone in the universe. He thinks that human beings are selfish, antagonistic towards others and inclined to evil. It is our nature that inclines us to try and defeat others and only those things that further our power and increase our ambition are in our best interest. Machiavelli also believes that human beings are divided by reason and desire. It is natural to him that our reason obeys our desires. We are not rational an...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Global economy - Assignment Example Secondly, more information on the advantages and disadvantages of the race to the bottom needs to be incorporated. Thirdly, although the history of the concept has been given, this discussion is brief. More information needs to be added to make the reader fully understand the history of race to the bottom and how several scholars and researchers have defined it. Finally, the article needs to discuss deeply how international bodies such IMF and WTO have contributed and/or hindered the race to the bottom. The concepts covered in class and those relating to globalization have been partially incorporated in the article. For example, some of the key concepts covered include: free trade, working conditions, competition and the environment have been included. However, there are other critical elements that need to be deeply explored. For instance, one of the core components of globalization that is related to the race to the bottom is international trade. This is not explored in the article. Furthermore, the article needs to link race to bottom to concepts such as contagion, international financial institutions and foreign direct
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Questioning, Battling and Identifying With Certain Types of Identities throughout Lives - Essay Example The researcher states that even though the narrative Ã¢â¬Å"Reflections of a 17 - Year OldÃ¢â¬ is being done by an American girl who is about to embark on a college life for the first time, it still provides a valuable insight into how a person reaching the age of maturity finds himself or herself battling multiple identities. Although a person is looking forward to the independence that life brings once he Reaches College, that person is still uncertain of whether he or she can actually handle the new life he or she is entering into. In a way, Plath in the essay is speaking of how she is creating a new identity for herself once she enters college, one that will help her adjust to the demands of her new life and in the process, help her develop into a better individual as well. Plath allows us an insight into how she was feeling on the day that she realized that she was no longer a child but rather, a young adult soon to face the challenges and uncertainties of life by telling the reader: Ã¢â¬Å"Somehow I have to keep and hold the rapture of being 17. Every day is so precious I feel infinitely sad at the thought of all this time melting farther and farther away from me as I grow older. Now, now is the perfect time of my life.Ã¢â¬ Sylvia Plath clearly depicted the fear that every 17 years old, male or female, has about that age that is considered the turning point in every adults life. 17 is the age when one is neither a child nor an adult anymore in the eyes of the world. It is a transition age into the age of legality when people expect more mature decisions and a sense of responsibility from a teenager. It is the fear that every teenager has. That the fun and fancy-free life are once known to him or she will now be a thing of the past.
Monday, November 18, 2019
How effectively do free elections, competition between political parties and the activities of pressure groups, ensure that the - Essay Example Competition between rival political parties provides the ground for issue-based politics and thereby offering the people an opportunity to make informed choices between the different alternatives by electing leaders who best fit the job description and espouse the interests of the majority. Nevertheless, pressure groups also play a very profound role in global politics today because they put elected leaders to task, to deliver their election pledges to the people, as well as acting as the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s watchdog, protecting and advocating for the interests of the electorates. In that case, free elections, competition between political parties and pressure groups have significant impacts on democracy, and in particular, with the pervasive increase in both the size and number of pressure groups in the world, debates have emerged regarding implications of these factors on democracy. For instance, questions have been raised concerning whether pressure groups promote democracy or whether they undermine it by impeding election of the right leadership; this paper will evaluate the effectiveness of free elections, competition between political parties, and the activities of pressure groups, in ensuring representation of the voters. Free elections are effective in ensuring the people are represented because they capture the true will and aspirations of a majority of people, which is the true essence of democracy in a free world, without undermining their voice through undercut means such as election rigging. Precursors to free elections include an impartial administration, that ensures enrolment is open to all eligible voters and casting of the vote is reasonably accessible to all, as well as, freedom from coercion, which ensures that the electorates are not compelled to make choices (Fletcher 2007, p.2). Additionally, a free electioneering process thrives on freedom of expression and association that allows all citizens to participate in the electoral debates, and tru thful election data systems that ensures that votes are counted fairly and accurately without falsifications whatsoever. In this regard, a free election is one that genuinely reflects the will of the people, and in which votes count equally, candidates campaign freely in a level playing field without restrictive infringements; allegations of dirty tricks coupled with unfair propaganda are some of the factors that undermine a free election. Leaderships who ascent to political offices through dirty tricks and unfair propaganda will hardly represent the electorates because they are a bunch of selfish self-serving individuals who owe no allegiance to the people thus they are accountable to no one in particular. Conversely, leaders who are put into office through fair elections are an embodiment of both the will and aspirations of the people thus will represent electorates effectively, because they are accountable to them. Free elections promote representation because they are the only s ource of political elites that can articulate the interests of the people through governance and democracy, unlike in dictatorships, where leadership is imposed upon the people regardless of whether it has the support of the majority of the people or whether it serves their interests. Competition between
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Marketing Strategies of Starbucks analysis This report will analyze the current trends in the specialty coffee segment are explained the business and marketing strategy of. Formation of successful marketing plan is the key point for a company to gain the competitive advantage over its competitors. The marketing plan evaluates the strategies currently adopting by the company. But the main theme of this report is to focus mainly on company marketing strategies with the help of SWOT Analysis, An off Growth Matrix, Boston Consulting Group Matrix, 4s. We will also try highlighting the company short term goals objectives, and how it can be achieved in the future. Starbucks coffee Company represents an excellent example of a company that has successfully marketed an experience. Moreover, its marketing strategies provide examples of positioning, image development, merchandizing, pricing, packaging, and market development. Starbucks success has helped propel the entire industry segment. The specialty gourmet coffee segment has been rapidly growing since the early 1990s. According to the specialty coffee Association, specialty coffee beverage retail outlets (gourmet coffee shops) increased over tenfold in past decade. Their locations are expected to double by 2015. The growth of this segment was stated and accelerated mainly by Starbucks coffee. Starbucks is the leader in this segment and is becoming one of the most well known international brands in the hospitality industry, as with Hilton and McDonalds. Starbucks opened its first shop in Seattle in 1971. Howard Schultz, the chairman, joined Starbucks in 1982 and introduced the Italian espresso bar concept in 1984. Becoming a public company in 1992. Starbucks accelerated the expansion of business with new capital. Starbucks has over 3,000 outlets in the United States and internationally and is rapidly opening new stores via joint ventures with local companies. Now Starbucks is the biggest coffeehouse chain in the Globe with 8,505 company-owned and 6,505 licensed stores in 42 countries, making a total of 15,011 stores worldwide. Starbucks sells espresso-based hot drink, drip brewed coffee fruit bottled, coupled with pastries, snacks, salads, coupled with sandwiches soups, other cold and hot drink. Competency of star bucks: To summarize, Starbucks has a high reputation for quality because of the following: The company goes to extreme lengths to buy the very finest Arabica coffees available on world markets, regardless of price. The companys freshness and quality are legendary. Beans that are held in bins for more than a week are donated to charity. Every piece of coffee-brewing equipment that is sold has been tested and evaluated. Each Starbucks employee is extensively trained to ensure that customers receive knowledgeable service. Mission Statement: To establish Starbucks as the premier purveyor of the finest coffee in the world while maintaining our uncompromising principles as we grow. The following six Guideline Principles will help us measure the appropriateness of our decisions: Provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity. Embrace diversity as an essential component in the way we do business. Apply the highest standard of excellence to the purchasing roasting and fresh delivery of our customer. Develop enthusiastically satisfied customer all of the time. Contribute positively to our communities and our environment. Recognize that profitability is essential to our future success. Starbucks has the following core values: Provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity. Embrace diversity as an essential component in the way we do business. Apply the highest standards of excellence to the purchasing, roasting and fresh delivery of our coffee. Develop enthusiastically satisfied customers all of the time. Contribute positively to our communities and our environment. Focus all resources to their coffee shop operation because they want to best serve for their customer. Encourage new and innovative ideas akin to maintain competitive growth. Dedicated thier self to continuous achievement in sales, profit and size of organization Market Demographics: The profile for the starbucks customer consists of the following geographic, demographic, and behavior factors: Geographic: The geographic survey may include the identification of total number of population, in society and total number of target customer in which you are operating (Lanchester, Massingham, Ashford 2002). The immediate geographic target market for starbucks is the total population of the UK which is 60,776,238 approximately. The specific targeted market of Starbucks is mostly the Employee of offices, students of schools, colleges, and universities. Demographics: Targeting adults and young adults is a good mechanism for Starbucks because this age level has the same interests as the foundation that promotes arts, culture, education, and the environment (starbucks.com). The company satisfies their customers through their advertising, support programs and, of course, their coffee. Psychographic: The people who want to enjoy a totally different coffee experience, they go to starbucks as it is positioned a completely different coffee shop. MARKET NEEDS: Starbucks has still succeed in providing a good quality coffee in wide rang plus snacks option for their cusotmer.Starbucks looking for perform the following benefits that are important to their customers: Selection: Starbucks want to excel on their competitors theory make easy availability of coffee and snacks in all of its shop, which not available at the larger, dominant coffee chains. Accessibility: Almost all kinds of coffee are exist from starbucks centrally located storefront. Customer service: The client will be daunted with the level of attention that they receive. Competitive pricing: Because it is highly competitive market, so the price of all range of coffee and other products should be price competitive. SITUATION ANALYSIS OF STARBUCKS: The company situation analysis is used at the business level to determine the strategic issues and problems that need to be addressed through the next three steps of the strategic planning process. Starbucks has own very good different kinds of strength to dominant in this industry make it to differentiate to others one in this market. This are the strength, those help starbucks to achieve their targets and desire goals. These are the stratbucks some important characteristics or strengths. STRENGHTS: Strong Brand Recognition Large retail distribution system Quality product Extensive product list Good supplier relationship Strong financial history Strong human resources WEAKNESSES: Even though starbucks posses a number of strengths but it also has some weakness too. starbucks needs to overcome on and deal them for remaining the top position in this competitive market. These are the s following list of starbucks weaknesses: Dependence on single source of business income Prices high relative to competition Strong dependence on suppliers Merchandise sales in stores OPPORTUNITIES: It is a fact that every company who enter in the market must have different kind of opportunities prevails in market. This is the important, how to recognize and make to strategy to acquire them, acquiring these opportunities is called success of company. Starbucks can more successes in market if they will be able to act upon these opportunities accordingly. The following new opportunities can help starbucks to success more in the future in the way of their business. Expansion into overseas markets Expansion into untapped U.K and worldwide markets Expansion of brand name into new products or business lines THREATS: Nobody knows about tomorrow. Especially for nowadays circumstances, world is changing dramatically. Some new threats are prevailing in the market with full swing of their effectiveness. Despite the fact of strong position of strabucks in the market, they are still need to keep eye on these threat get strong positioning and branding. These are the list of some very common internally and externally threats. Economic conditions may make consumers unwilling to pay high prices Political conditions abroad may limit expansion Increasing competition in coffee market May be reaching saturation point in some U.S markets Increase prices of raw material for coffee and other stuff BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG) MATRIX: In the mid-1960s the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) was founded to provide advice to strategic marketing planners. BCG developed a simple but useful strategic planning technique based on an analysis of a company product portfolio. The technique entail assigning each individual product of an organization to one of four possible cells in simple matrix according to the relative market share and rate of market growth associated with that particular product/business. (Essential of Marketing, Geoff, Lester, Ashford, 4th Ed, p382) In the BCG matrix, star quadrant is the most dominant place where the companies enjoy the high market growth and high market share. Thats why every company wants to stay in star quadrant. As STARBUCKS coffee shop is the renowned coffee chain in the world, thats why it clearly lies in the (STAR QUADRANT High Growth + High Share) because the annual sales of the company in last financial year 2009 are US $ 9.774 Million, moreover the coffee shop enjoying the highest market share as well in the coffee industry. ANSOFFS GROWTH MATRIX: An off has proposed the idea of product. Market scope to aid in the formulation and selection of strategies, particularly for those companies with growth objectives. The basic framework of this approach is the matrix comprises market on the vertical axis and on the horizontal axis products. In turn, each axis is subdivided into existing and new. Each cell of the matrix is form a different strategic alternative for achieving growth. (Essential of Marketing, Geoff, Lester, Ashford, 4th Ed, p380) In the ANSOFF growth matrix, the STARBUCKS coffee shop lies in the (MARKET EXPENSION Existing Product + New Market), because company is making very good profit in almost every coffee shop in different location of the world. Expending its coffee market in Middle East, and Asia could be very helpful for the companys profit because there is huge potential for the coffee market as there is no famous coffee shops in that part of the world. Just like recently they have opened their two coffee shops, one in China and other is in Kuwait. MARKETING MIX STRATEGY FOR STARBUCKS: The term marketing mix is attributed to the American Neil H. Borden and has been touched on several times in earlier chapters. As we have seen, the marketing mix consists of those marketing tools over which the marketer has control and therefore can vary in order to achieve overall marketing objective and strategies. (Essential of Marketing, Geoff, Lester, Ashford, 4th Ed, p380) In order to make appropriate strategies for gaining customers preferences and their loyalty, we need to understand as to how STARBUCKS Marketing Mix or 4 Ps have enabled the company to achieve superior customer satisfaction, and also in building a long-term relationship with its customers. Following are the some recommendations for STARBUCKS in relation with marketing mix: Frame Work of marketing Mix PRODUCT: Product is the bundle of benefits which the supplier offers to the purchaser. The particular set of benefits on offer will appeal to specific group of consumers: it is extremely unlikely that any product will appeal to everyone. Even products such as Coca-Cola, which is sold worldwide and is the worlds most recognized brand name has only a minority share of the soft drinks market. Many people simply dont like it, or think it is too expensive, or prefer other drinks which meet their needs better. Attempts to create a perfect product which suits everybody are likely to result in over complex, over expansive products, which is why product orientation has fallen into dispute. Decision that address the new product development process(innovation management), licensing strategies with potential partners, intellectual property rights, services provided to augment the revenue stream from base products product name/brand decisions ,development of complementary products by partners, creation of industry standards, packaging, and so forth, the critical need is to develop a stream of products with the right set of features to satisfy customer needs in a compelling yet simple fashion.( jakki j. Mohr, Sanjit Sengupta, Stanley Slater,2000, p7) In Starbucks they made purely their products to satisfying the needs of the customer, and they made coffee with the finest coffee ingredients of the world. The different range of coffee and snacks offered by STARBUCKS are as follow: ESPRESSO: Coffee Latte, Cappuccino, Vanilla Latte, Coffee Americano, Espresso COFFEE HOUSE FAVOURITES Caramel Hot Chocolate, Coffee Misto, Classic Hot Chocolate, Signature Hot Chocolate, Freshly Brewed coffee FRAPPUCCINO: Cinnamon Dolce, Java Chip, Espresso, Coffee, Caramel SPRING FAVOURITES: Cinnamon Dolce Latte, Caramel Macchiato PRICE: Price is the total cost the customers of buying the product. It therefore goes beyond the simple monetary costs: customers also consider the difficulty of purchase, the cost of ownership of the product, and even the embarrassment factor of owing the wrong brand. Some product has psychological association which customers find costly. (Essential of Marketing, Geoff, Lester, Ashford, 4th Ed, p380) Decisions that establish price points for the company products, and address issues related cost to produce/manufacturer the good, margins along the distribution channel, competitors prices (pricing relative to a specific firm market position), customer value, total cost of ownership for the customer, price for product bundles, and profitability.( .( jakki j. Mohr, Sanjit Sengupta, Stanley Slater,2000, p8). Price is the only element of the marketing mix that produces revenue, As such; it serves a tactical as well as an economic role for an organization 9Holloway and Robison 1995). The price charged sends many signals about the likely value of the product being offered and, as such, must be commensurate with the quality of experience, Starbuckss product prices are relative high than others, because they target those people of society who give the preference on quantity. Following are the some prices of STARBUCKS famous products: ESPRESSO: Tall Grande Vent Coffee Latte Ã £2.05p Ã £2.40p Ã £2.65p Cappuccino Ã £2.05p Ã £2.40p Ã £2.65p Vanilla Latte Ã £2.35 Ã £2.70p Ã £2.95p Coffee Americano Ã £1.75p Ã £1.90p Ã £2.05p Espresso Ã £1.20p Ã £1.40p Ã £1.55p COFFEE HOUSE FAVOURITES Caramel Hot Chocolate Ã £2.90p Ã £3.25p Ã £3.50p Coffee Misto Ã £1.95p Ã £2.35p Ã £2.55p Classic Hot Chocolate Ã £2.20p Ã £2.50p Ã £2.80p Signature Hot Chocolate Ã £2.65p Ã £3.00p Ã £3.25p Freshly Brewed coffee Ã £1.65p Ã £1.75p Ã £1.90p FRAPPUCCINO: Cinnamon Dolce Ã £3.05p Ã £3.25p Ã £3.45p Java Chip Ã £3.05p Ã £3.25p Ã £3.45p Espresso Ã £2.65p Ã £2.85p Ã £3.05p Coffee Ã £2.50p Ã £2.70p Ã £2.90p Caramel Ã £3.05p Ã £3.25p Ã £3.45p SPRING FAVOURITES: Cinnamon Dolce Latte Ã £2.70p Ã £3.05P Ã £3.30P Caramel Macchiato Ã £2.70P Ã £3.05P Ã £3.30P PLACE: Place is the location where the exchange takes place. This may be a retail store, it may be a catalogue, it maybe a restaurant, or it may be a website. Deciding on the appropriate place for the exchange is not merely a matter of movie goods around but is rather a strategic issue. The decisions revolve around making it as easy as possible for customers to find the good and make the purchase, and also using channels which give the appropriate image for the product. For example, retailing a product through discount stores gives a completely different impression from retailing a product through discount stores gives a completely different impression from retailing the same product through exclusive department stores. (Essential of Marketing, Geoff, Lester, Ashford, 4th Ed, p380) Now in case of Starbucks they mainly build their stores in the prime location of the city where they can easily attracts their desired customers who really want to enjoy the taste of coffee. Just like in UK they build their stores mainly in the shopping malls and town centers, Amusements Park, stadiums, airports etc. Now it is the need of the time that they should be concentrate to open their more stores in Middle East and Asia. PROMOTION: Promotion is such a large part of marketing that it is often mistaken for the whole of marketing. Promotion encompasses all the communication activities of marketing: advertising, public relations, and sales promotions, personal selling, and so forth. Promotion is not simply a hard sell, however: it is a way of meeting customers information needs, at least in part. It is also, to an extent, persuasive in that most marketing communication emphasis the good aspects of owning products and downplay the bad aspects. Starbucks nearly spends Ã £4.7 million every year for promotions. It is include the cost of print media, electronic media, indoor, outdoor media etc. The companys latest stunning plan is the Starbucks Card. You buy a re-chargeable card in the UK which can be used at coffee bars in the US, Canada, Australia and Thailand. The card will enhance the Starbucks experience for customers allowing them to buy their daily cup of coffee quickly and easily, even when they are not carrying cash. Recently company through an agreement between Starbucks, and T-Mobile the two companies have come up with a way to provide internet access at Starbucks location and high speed broadband for Starbucks customers as well. In addition, T-Mobile hot spot customers get to use the Starbucks stores as they do now. Moreover Starbucks spends millions of dollars internationally to protect the environment and global warming. DIVERCIFICATION: The major reason for a business adopting a strategy of diversification is therefore to allow it to reduce its dependence upon a single market area (W. Stewart Howe 1986 p 153). At a general strategic level An off suggests three reasons why firms diversify. First, their objectives cannot be achieved by continuing to operate in their existing markets. Thus, since continued operation in these markets is not able to diversify the profit, risk or growth objectives of the business, achievement of these must be sought in new market areas. Second, where a business has excess financial resources beyond those necessary to satisfy its expansion plan in its existing markets, then rather than retain these resources in liquid form of business may invest them in new markets areas. Third, if greater opportunities are presented to the firm in new market areas than accrue from its existing activities. Then a diversification program may be undertaken to benefit from these. There are tw o types of diversifications: RELATED DIVERSIFICATION UN-RELATED DIVERSICATION RELATED DIVERSIFICATION: Expending combining with firms in different, but related industry that are Strategic Fits. UNRELATED DIVERSIFICATION: Growing by combining with firms in un-related industries, where higher financial returns are possible. Now, if Starbucks want to diversify its business outside the industry, then the company should start a totally new business that is not from the same industry. For example Starbucks is a coffee shop, if they enter in the manufacturing business and start making cars, bikes etc that will be the perfect example of diversification. But the main focus of the Starbucks should be on their strategic business unit which is coffee shop. If they want to diversify their business within the same industry i.e. related diversification, then the Starbucks should combine their business with their competitors to launch new products. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: The franchiser/licenser remembers to provide a standard package of components, or ingredients together with management and marketing services, and advice. Since franchising involves the transfer of tangible, it can enable greater control of the operation for the originating manufacturer than licensing (Lancaster Massing ham Ashford 2002 p 437). Starbucks currently use three strategies for business in overseas. These strategies are as follow: 1: Joint ventures 2: Licenses 3: Company-Owned Operations. Mainly the company uses the company-owned shops for the business in other countries. RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE MARKETING PLAN OF STARBUCKS (3 YEARS): By analyzing the above whole information such as Swot analysis, An off analysis, BCG matrix, marketing mix, following should be the primary objectives of the marketing plan of Starbucks coffee shop for next 3 years: GOALS OR OBJECTIVES: Sales should be increased by 15 to 20% at least. In order to get increased sales, they should increase Gross Profit margin by 25%. Find more new markets especially in Middle East, and Asia. More strengthen their position as a worldwide coffee shop leader. Increase marketing budget by 15% In order to achieve the above future objectives, the Starbucks coffee shop should follow instructions: INTRODUCE SOME NEW PROMOTIONS: As Starbucks introduced a stunning promotion plan that is Starbucks re-chargeable card for purchasing coffee whether you have money or not at that time. Just like that company should develop a membership card especially for the students. Some discount should be offer to regular customer, and student to increase the detainment. NEW TARGER MARKETS: To maintain the top position in the coffee market, Starbucks should go and find some new coffee potential market. Just like there is great potential of new coffee shop especially in Asia, and Middle East, as there is no famous coffee shop. Where they can capture in new market, and got some handsome profit as well. MAINTAIN SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: The Starbucks coffee shop should maintain the competitive advantage that it has got over other coffee shops. In order to maintain leading position in the coffee market, the Starbucks should introduce innovative products after good intervals. INTRODUCE SOME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS: To maintain the dominant position in the coffee market, it is necessary for the Starbucks that, they should introduce some really innovative products after good intervals. The induction of new products creates the brand loyalty among the customers. INCREASE MARKETING BUDGET: In any company market department play a vital rule in increasing the sales plus revenue. So It is very essential for the Starbucks to full fill the requirement of its Marketing Department whether its finically or non financially. So that they can performed its task potentially. Moreover they are some other resources too, thorough which a Starbucks increase the sales revenue. For example, they should conduct promotions Events, Held seminars and get the services of Global celebrities. DIVERCIFY THE BUSINESS: Diversification is a very important tool for maintaining overall position in any market. Starbucks cannot rely through limited niches products. They have to adopt t Diversification. Diversify the business in product-related items, or unrelated items to increase their revenues. IMPROVE THE PRODUCT QUALITY: To maintain the superb quality and taste of different products in Starbucks, the company should adopt the Total Quality Management tool, which means improve the products quality until the perfection, and there is no defect on product or zero defect products. EMPLOYEES TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Training and development of employees is an important task for the management in order to enhance the progress of company, and increase the sales, and produce the error free services. EMPLOYEES MOTIVATIONS: Employees motivation is very important for every organization to get good profit, and in order to maintain its position in the market. Good pay, and reward system is the best tool to motivate the employees. So Starbucks should try to give good pay and benefits to their employees during the job.